The Defense of Marriage Act was passed in 1996 during the Clinton Administration. Under this law, states were not required to recognize same-sex marriage. Also, in Section 3 of the act, a marriage would be federally defined as a union between a man and a woman. Since the act was signed into law, it has been under scrutiny by the LGBT community. Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders (GLAD) has worked strongly against DOMA since its inception, and in 2009 filed a Federal Court lawsuit against the constitutionality of the act under the equal protection clause. Speaker is Kate Kendell, Executive Director of the National Center for Lesbian Rights.